经典美文欣赏:选票还是子弹

马尔科姆·艾克斯于1925年出生在美国内布拉斯加州东部的奥马哈市,少年时期是个不学无术的街头混混,贩毒、吸毒、滥交、抢劫、杀人几乎无恶不作。终于自食恶果,被抓入监狱。入狱后,他居然从看字典开始,学习了世界历史,哲学,政治,自然科学等方面的知识,并参加了黑色穆斯林组织。出狱后,他投身黑人运动,成为声望仅次于马丁·路德·金的黑人运动领袖。
马尔科姆原是穆斯林组织“伊斯兰民族”的头领,他到处发表演讲,强调族裔对立,把什么事都往种族冲突上拉,煽动黑人对白人的仇恨。到后来他醒悟、放弃暴力、并和腐败的教主进行抗衡,不再强调仇恨;而是追求黑人和白人之间的沟通、理解、博爱,但却遭到自己原先效忠的组织的暗杀。宗教带给他强大的力量,他所表现出的永远是那么坚强、自信;他的言行举止永远显示出他的火一般的激情和永不言败的信念。他的生命充满了斗争与愤怒,但同时又涌动着热情与博爱。马尔科姆总能够用犀利的语言,针针见血地击中问题的要害。
此篇演讲发表于1964年4月3日,此前的1964年3月,马尔科姆与极端派的黑色穆斯林组织“伊斯兰民族”决裂。此演讲发表后短短10个月的
1965年2月21日,在曼哈顿奥特朋舞厅的一个报告会上,“伊斯兰民族”组织派出的三名歹徒连开15枪残忍地杀害了马尔科姆。
It’ll be the the ballot or it’ll be the bullet. It’ll be liberty or it’ll
be death. And if you’re not ready to pay that price don’t use the word freedom
in your vocabulary.
是选票还是子弹。是自由还是死亡。如果你还没有准备付出代价,那么就请不要说什么自由。
演讲全文:The Ballot or the Bullet / Malcolm X
Mr. Moderator, Reverend Cleage, Brother Lomax, brothers and sisters, and
friends and I see some enemies. In fact, I think we’d be fooling ourselves if we
had an audience this large and didn’t realize that there were some enemies
present.
This afternoon we want to talk about the ballot or the bullet. The ballot
or the bullet explains itself. But before we get into it, since this is the year
of the ballot or the bullet, I would like to clarify some things that refer to
me personally — concerning my own personal position.
I’m still a Muslim. That is, my religion is still Islam. My religion is
still Islam. I still credit Mr. Mohammed for what I know and what I am. He’s the
one who opened my eyes. At present, I’m the Minister of the newly founded Muslim
Mosque, Incorporated which has its offices in the Teresa Hotel, right in the
heart of Harlem — that’s the black belt in New York city. And when we realize
that Adam Clayton Powell is a Christian minister, he’s the — he heads
Abyssinian Baptist Church, but at the same time, he’s more famous for his
political struggling.
And Dr. King is a Christian Minister, in Atlanta – or from Atlanta Georgia
— or in Atlanta, Georgia, but he’s become more famous for being involved in the
civil rights struggle. There’s another in New York, Reverend Galamison — I
don’t know if you’ve heard of him out here – he’s a Christian Minister from
Brooklyn, but has become famous for his fight against a segregated school system
in Brooklyn. Reverend Clee, right here, is a Christian Minister, here in
Detroit. He’s the head of the “Freedom Now Party.”
All of these are Christian Ministers — All of these are Christian
Ministers, but they don’t come to us as Christian Ministers. They come to us as
fighters in some other category.
I’m a Muslim minister — the same as they are Christian Ministers — I’m a
Muslim minister. And I don’t believe in fighting today in any one front, but on
all fronts.
In fact, I’m a black Nationalist Freedom Fighter.
Islam is my religion, but I believe my religion is my personal business. It
governs my personal life, my personal morals. And my religious philosophy is
personal between me and the God in whom I believe; just as the religious
philosophy of these others is between them and the God in whom they believe.
And this is best this way. Were we to come out here discussing religion,
we’d have too many differences from the outstart and we could never get
together. So today, though Islam is my religious philosophy, my political,
economic, and social philosophy is Black Nationalism. You and I — As I say, if
we bring up religion we’ll have differences; we’ll have arguments; and we’ll
never be able to get together. But if we keep our religion at home, keep our
religion in the closet, keep our religion between ourselves and our God, but
when we come out here, we have a fight that’s common to all of us against a
[sic] enemy who is common to all of us.
The political philosophy of Black Nationalism only means that the black man
should control the politics and the politicians in his own community. The — The
time — The time when white people can come in our community and get us to vote
for them so that they can be our political leaders and tell us what to do and
what not to do is long gone.
By the same token, the time when that same white man, knowing that your
eyes are too far open, can send another negro into the community and get you and
me to support him so he can use him to lead us astray — those days are long
gone too.
The political philosophy of Black Nationalism only means that if you and I
are going to live in a Black community — and that’s where we’re going to live,
cause as soon as you move into one of their — soon as you move out of the Black
community into their community, it’s mixed for a period of time, but they’re
gone and you’re right there all by yourself again.
We must — We must understand the politics of our community and we must
know what politics is supposed to produce. We must know what part politics play
in our lives. And until we become politically mature we will always be mislead,
lead astray, or deceived or maneuvered into supporting someone politically who
doesn’t have the good of our community at heart.

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